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Digital Signage Glossary of Terms

As the digital signage industry expands, the DSF Education and Standards Committee has aggregated and adopted a comprehensive glossary of terms in the digital signage industry from several digital signage software companies, manufactures of hardware, and numerous DS integration web sites. In addition the glossary includes several definitions from industry groups, including DPAA, DSEG, the DSE, and InfoComm, to help provide a common base and language for all people and organizations involved in the industry. It is our hope that this glossary will help newcomers and experts alike. If you see a term missing or have a suggestion and/or correction to the definitions listed below, please contact us by filling out this form.

A B  C D  E F G H I L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y

Activation: refers to a buying decision motivated at the point-of-purchase by such factors as buying convenience, price, promotion, impulse selection, etc. 

Ad Audience: refers to the number and type of people exposed to the specific ad, with an opportunity to see. 

Ad Exposure Time: The number of seconds spent watching and listening to the ad.

Ad Exposure Frequency: The number of separate ad exposures of an ad audience member during the venue visit, or other period.

Ad Exposure Reach: The net number of viewers, of specified characteristics, in the vehicle zone who watched and listened to the ad, during a time period.

Ad Model: (See Business Model) the “Ad Model” creates profit through ad display and sponsorship revenues, coupon redemption commissions and marketing intelligence sales.

Ad Rotation Duration: the number of seconds required to view all of the ads in a rotation or loop.

Adjacency: A commercial time slot immediately before or after a specific ad or program.

Advertising Agency: A company that does media buying, planning and trafficking, which are carried out by credited advertising agencies. Selecting an advertising agency can ensure your advertisements are placed where you will gain maximum exposure and agencies will make decisions about the elements of design and content of your advertisement.

Advertising Budget: refers to the sum allocated by a company to its marketing department or to its advertising. Money set aside by the advertiser to pay for advertising. There are a variety of methods for determining the most desirable size of an advertising budget.

Advertising spot: A unit interval (e.g. 10-second, 15-second, 20-second, 30-second, etc.) containing a commercial message supplied by an advertiser for insertion in the transmissions of a TV channel or digital signage network.

Alternative Out-of-Home Advertising:  A segment reported advertising expenditures that includes spending on digital billboards, out-of-home television networks and place-based media. 

Ambient light: is the light that exists in a scene. Also referred to as “natural light” or “existing light,” ambient light can be the found light inside a home, a restaurant or concert hall, or a bright, sunny day, a deep foggy day, a city at night...in other words, any kind of pre-existing light.

Artifact: In the AV world, it's any unwanted object, visual distortion, or defect on a video screen.

Aspect ratio: the dimensions of a display screen's image expressed as a ratio of the horizontal width to the vertical height.

Attenuation: the loss of signal strength as it flows through a cables usually expressed in decibels (dB).

Audience demographics: refers to the characteristics that define who the target audience is. Such items as age, gender, ethnicity, cultural background, religious or political affiliations, economic status, family background and group memberships may help define the demographic.

Authoring: the process of creating and integrating content from various sources for the purpose of displaying on digital signage; often involves converting and sizing images and other digital media.

AV Distribution System: the chain of audio and video devices used to distribute audio and video signals from the media player, PC, or other audio/video source to the point of display.

Avail or ad spot availability- Availability: A broadcast time period that is open for reservation by an advertiser in response to an advertiser's or agencies initial inquiry (slang "avail").

Assets: Audio, video, still photography, logo graphics etc., and similar elements which are used as components to create finished advertising spots. 

Audience: The number and type of people exposed to a vehicle with an opportunity to see the typical advertising or informational segment. 

Audience Composition: The demographic and/or socioeconomic profile of the network’s audience that is inclusive of the percentage of the total audience falling in each segment. 

Audited Circulation: the certification of traffic count or circulation by a recognized third party according to national procedures approved by the buyer and seller community. 

Awareness: knowledge or understanding of an object, idea or thought. In this case, the consumer is cognizant of the digital place-based network, the programming, and/or the advertising contained within.

Brand: A simple, cohesive identity or consumer impression of a product, service or organization

Branding: is the action of gaining a favored view on the part of consumers for a product, service, organization or experience. These actions include advertising, merchandising, demonstration, education (consumers, sales staff, etc.) profile through media, events, etc., co-branding, etc.

Business Model: (see also Ad model): The costs of digital signage networks are met in different ways. An “Ad Model” creates profit through ad display and sponsorship revenues, coupon redemption commissions and marketing intelligence sales. The costs in a “Venue Model” are considered by the display location provider (typically) as a cost of business or investment toward patron marketing, up-selling, or improving a wait, service or shopping experience. It is common to blend the two business models allowing the benefits of a Venue model with investment offset through sponsorship or advertising. Live private program display and distance learning provide benefit in the both the Ad and Venue Models. 

Back (rear) projection: is a technique in which video is projected from behind a translucent screen material, rather than in front of a screen, to make better use of available space, cast an unobstructed image, and prevent shadowing on the screen. 

Balun:  a device that connects a balanced line, such as twisted pair (Cat5), to an unbalanced line, such as coaxial cable. 

Bandwidth: In video applications, the range of available frequencies that can be encoded and decoded as well as the signal-carrying capacity in a video path; measured in Hertz (Hz) or bits or bytes per second (bps/Bps). 

Banner advertising: Promotional content formatted as a text crawl or graphic that displays horizontally at the bottom or top of a digital signage screen; can be content paid for by a sponsor or the signage operator's own promotional content. 

Back to back: The running of more than one ad with one immediately following the other. 

Billboard: A sponsor announcement at the beginning or end of program content. 

Bookends: Two commercial units, usually 15 seconds each, ordered to run specifically in the first and last position of the same commercial break.

Broadband: a technique for sending data, voice, and video traffic over long distances by transmitting high-frequency signals over coax, UTP, and fiber optic cables, or wireless. 

Bug: An embedded graphic icon or logo used to brand a digital place-based program

CPM: is an acronym for cost per thousand, it's a metric and cost modeling unit used to estimate the effectiveness of digital signage advertising. This advertising model describes the amount paid for every 1000 times an ad is viewed and an impression is recorded.

CPP (Cost-Per-Point): The cost to buy one rating point, or one percent of the population in a defined geography or universe. 

CPS (cost per screen): refers to the total cost of advertising distributed over the network on a per screen basis. It is different that CPM but some advertisers prefer it

Campaign: The planning and execution of a marketing plan, including advertising schedules, promotions, events and other media. 

Cancellation Policy: The terms under which an advertiser can cancel an ad unit or units scheduled that has already been purchased and scheduled, including the required amount of advance notice and any applicable financial penalty or consequence for early termination. 

Captive: An audience confined to an area in which consumers have a strong likelihood of being exposed to the messaging.

Channel: A specific, prescribed, or official course or means of communication. In regards to digital place-based, this refers to a particular network of venues. 

Captive audience network: strategically placed digital signage that targets viewers whose activities force them to be in one place, often for a lengthy period of time.

Category 5 cables: is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. It is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.

Cellular: is a type of short-wave analog or digital telecommunication in which a subscriber has a wireless connection from a mobile device to a relatively nearby transmitter. The transmitter's span of coverage is called a cell. Generally, cellular telephone service is available in urban areas and along major highways. As the cellular telephone user moves from one cell or area of coverage to another, the telephone is effectively passed on to the local cell transmitter.

Codec: A device or software that compresses and decompresses (or codes and decodes) data to preserve disk space; certain codecs convert and store analog video signals in a compressed digital file format.

Compliance: Fulfilling the terms and requirement of a buy; delivering what is due. 

Component video: an analog video signal in which the luminance and chrominance is carried on three wires. Also known as Y-Pb-Pr in which Y carries the luminance, Pb carries the difference between blue and luminance, and Pr carries the difference between red and luminance. Provides better quality than Composite Video does.

Composite video: an analog video signal containing brightness, color, and sync pulse information. Referred to also as CVBS (Color, Video, Blank and Sync), it is used for NTSC, PAL, or SECAM video formats.

Content: Media, clips, text, video and audio that is presented by display and audio devices by a digital signage system.

Content distribution (or management) server: a server or computer used to store content for distribution to digital signage. 
Content management software undefined For digital signage, it's a collaborative application used to import and organize graphics, electronic documents, HTML, audio, and other media from various sources into an integrated multimedia presentation.

Contrast ratio: is a measure of a video display's luminosity specifying the difference between the blackest of blacks and the whitest of whites.

Convergence: is the integration of the three primary communications channels (data, voice, and video) into one using the same network appliances, one standard network infrastructure, and the same administration. This high-bandwidth, combined-transmission method is known as Internet Protocol, or IP.

Confirmation: Written verification that the order has been received and will clear.

Cost per point: In print and broadcast media, cost of reaching one percent (one rating point) of the households of a targeted demographic segment or geographical area. Also called cost per gross rating point (CPGRP).

Coverage area: Geographic area covered by network installations.

DMA: A geographic area defined by Nielsen Media Research as a group of counties that make up a particular TV market, in which the preponderance of TV viewing is from TV stations located in the particular market.

DPAA (Digital Place-based Advertising Association): The media trade association that is a resource for information on digital place-based advertising, standards and metrics.

DSF (Digital Signage Federation): a not for profit organization supporting and promoting the common business interests of the world-wide digital signage industry, the interactive technologies industry, and the digital out-of-home network industry.

Daypart: refers to the partial segment of a medium's overall operating hours, during which programming and/or advertising is customized to appeal to a particular demographic or target audience.
Demand: A desire for a product or service. A buying decision is based on brand identity and the impression based on previous purchases and experience of use.

Digital Advertising Networks: Digital networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs, medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

Digital Out-of-Home: refers to signage that is displayed in public spaces by means of projector, LCD, Plasma screen, Electronic billboard, Isle-talkers, etc. Multimedia content is usually displayed using a computer, also referred to as a digital engine or media player.

Digital place-based Network: Networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

Digital Sign: a singular reference to a screen that is running digital signage content and typically replaces static billboards and posters.

Digital Signage Network: the medium that digital signage content travels between the creation of the content, the displaying of the content on the screen, status information that proves that the content was actually displayed and reporting of how the network is functioning at any given time of the day.

Digital Signage Player: A Digital Signage Player is the device at customer sites where Digital Signage Software accesses and displays digital signage information that it "receives" from the controlling server. Digital Signage Players automatically communicate with a primary server and in some cases; roll over to backup servers in the event of an interruption. The player may further assure consistency and uninterrupted signage presentation by preloading pages while others are being displayed.

Digital Signage Software: software that is standalone or Internet based that drives a digital signage system and digital sign.

Digital Signage Solutions:  A complete system with software, hardware, installation, training and sometimes even including content.

Digital Video: A video that has been placed in digitized format that is then able to be controlled by a PC.

Digital Signage: A network of digital displays that is centrally managed and addressable for targeted information, entertainment, merchandising and advertising. (Synonyms): Dynamic Signage, Digital Signs, Electronic Signage, Digital Media Advertising, Digital Signage Network, In-store TV Network, Captive Audience Network, Narrowcasting Network, Out-of-home Media Network, Digital Media Network, Advertising Network, etc.

Digital Billboards & Displays: Communicate advertising-only messages through screens equipped with LED (Light emitting diode) or LCD (Liquid crystal display) technology, often changing at predetermined times, or through motion recognition technology, to showcase multiple brands. 

Discrepancy: When an invoice and the original order for an advertisement do not match.

Display Calibration: is the process of using a display’s controls to calibrate the on screen image so that it matches the original source content, as its creator designed it. This allows the calibrated display to accurately reproduce the video signals from any source device, be it a computer, digital signage player, cable/satellite box, or Blu-Ray player.

Display Mount: refers to a device, bracket, fixture, or stand that provides a place for a display to be attached to on the wall, ceiling, or floor. It provides a stable and secure manner for the display to be placed in a desired location.

Dwell-time:  The amount of time a customer remains in a venue, or a specific area within the venue. Dwell-time is an important variable in determining display placement, advertisement size (seconds), content loop duration, advertising-to-content ratio, and advertisement cost. One of the primary objectives of Digital Signage is to increase dwell-time, and therefore often forms part of the Return on Investment (ROI) metrics and cost justification value proposition.

ETA:  Estimated Time of Arrival

Engagement: The degree to which consumers focus or pay attention to a particular program or message. The level of engagement can be a function of the message’s relevancy to the consumer, the degree of interactivity of the medium, the nature of the consumer exposure (e.g., stationary vs. in-movement impressions, captive vs. non-captive audience, etc.) and the breadth of competing messaging. 

Ethernet:  A local-area network (LAN) architecture  uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps.  A newer version of Ethernet, called 100Base-T (or Fast Ethernet), supports data transfer rates of 100 Mbps. And the newest version, Gigabit Ethernet supports data rates of 1 gigabit (1,000 megabits) per second.

Exposure: A consumer’s experience with an advertising medium or message.

Eye tracking
: Intelligent camera sensor technology that detects the viewing of a screen by a person; reflective light is used to determine when the person's eyes turn in the direction of the screen; in some cases, the camera can recognize the gender and age range of the person.

Eyes-On: A new measurement for traditional Outdoor which reflects the probability that a person notices a billboard, and therefore, the advertising on it.

Favorability: Positive perceptions of a particular brand or product which have been influenced by messaging and/or experience.

Flash: refers to Adobe® software that is used to manipulate vector and raster graphics, often for the purpose of adding animation to Web pages and multimedia presentations.

Flat panel display: is a computer or television monitor that does not use cathode ray tube (CRT) technology, but commonly LCD or plasma technology. This allows the monitor to have a thin profile, light weight, small footprint and a flat screen, which is how the flat panel displays, gets its name.

Flight: The advertising campaign period for a particular advertising spot or spots, expressed in days or weeks; also known as duration. 

Frames per second (fps): the speed at which still images (frames) in a video or animation are played in succession by an imaging device; sometimes expressed as hertz (Hz).

Frequency: The average number of times a person is exposed to a message, program or network within a given period of time, often one or four weeks. 

Frequency discounts: A frequency discount is a contract rate offering one of the best discounts for display ads. The best commitment is usually running a minimum size ad each and every week for a 52-week period. Some companies also have shorter periods such as 13 and 26-week contracts.

Frequency distribution: The percentage of respondents reached at each level of exposure to an advertising schedule. 

GRP’s (Gross Rating Points): The total number of rating points achieved for a particular period of time or schedule of advertisements. 

Gross Ad Costs: The gross rate is the full cost of advertising and is the amount that advertisers pay for their ads to be aired. This includes a commission to the advertising agency that is typically 15 percent of the cost of the total advertisement costs. The gross rate can be calculated by dividing the net rate of advertising by .85. For examples, $10 net costs can be divided by .85 to become $11.76 gross costs.

Gross Impressions: refers to the sum of exposures to a schedule of digital place-based network announcements. 

Gross Opportunity to View Audience:  is the total number of incidences, over a period of time, where consumers are in an area where they have the opportunity to view an installed network. This number can be reported by demographic segment. 

Gross vs. Net Ad Cost: Costs of advertising or the rates for advertising are generally calculated in two formats -- net media and gross media. Net media forms 85 percent of gross media. Accordingly, an advertisement that has a gross media rate or cost of $10,000 will have a net media rate or cost of $8,500. The money that forms the difference between these two rates is the standard agency commission for services such as media buying, planning and trafficking, which are carried out by credited advertising agencies

Gross Viewers: refers to the total number of viewing incidences, over a period of time, to an installed network. This number can be reported by demographic segment.

HDMI: Acronym for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, a digital connector interface that combines uncompressed high-definition video, multichannel audio, and intelligent format and command data in a single cable; with a bandwidth of up to 5 Gigabytes, it supports all HDTV standards.

HDTV: Acronym for High-Definition Television, a display format for digital TV transmissions that boasts twice the number of scanning lines per frame (60 fps) than conventional Standard Definition TV (SDTV), as well as offering a much higher number of pixels and a wider aspect ratio.

IPTV: Digital television service delivered via a broadband IP link using data communications wiring.

Impressions: undefined refers to how many times an audience member observes a digital signage ad or presentation.

: Exposure to a digital place-based network, program or message. 

Incentives: Financial or other offerings that are designed to increase participation in a survey.

LAN-WAN:  A LAN or local area computer network spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).

LCD: Acronym for liquid crystal display, a thin, flat-panel display device containing liquid crystal solution between two transparent electrodes and two polarizing filters; when electrically charged, the crystal molecules align in one direction or another in front of a light source, forming a pixel-rich, composite image.

LED: Acronym for light emitting diode, a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electric current passes through it; in digital signage applications, clusters of red, green, and blue diodes are grouped together to form large panels, many of which are suitable for outdoor use.

Landscape orientation: a screen rotated to the width of the display is greater than the height which many more viewers identify with the prevalent widescreen TVs.

Loop: A digital signage video or multimedia presentation that repeats at a standard interval for seamless continuous play.

Lumen: Abbreviated "lm," a unit of measuring light wavelengths perceived by the human eye; in the AV industry, it's used to describe the brightness of a projector's image. 

Lower Third: Information, graphics and/or animation overlaying video; also known as chyrons and superbars. 

Lowest Unit Rate (LUR): The lowest rate offered by the network to any advertiser for a specific class of time.

Make-Good: refers to an advertisement that did not run as originally scheduled and is being re-scheduled with the intent to fulfill the original order/contract.

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Narrowcast: Program content designed to reach a specific group defined by a particular demographic. 

Near Field Communication (NFC): Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless technology that enables the communication between devices over a distance of less than 10 cm.  An NFC device can work in two modes: active (battery powered) and passive (radio energy powered).There are three main ways to use NFC: 
  • Card emulation: the NFC device behaves exactly like a contactless card and can be used in transport fare payment systems based on MiFare, Calypso or Felica as well as open banking payment systems based on Visa payWave, MasterCard PayPass or American Express ExpressPay
  • Reader mode: the NFC device is active and reads a passive RFID tag; for example reading and storing a Web address or coupon from a poster for interactive advertising
  • Person-to-person (P2P) mode: two NFC devices communicate with each other exchanging information
Net Ad Costs: The net cost is the cost of an advertisement when there is no advertising agency involved, or the amount that an advertiser expects to be paid after a 15 percent payment has been made to an advertising agency. In order to calculate the net rate of advertising costs, multiply the gross rate by .85. For example, $10 gross rate multiplied by .85 becomes $8.50 net rate.

OVAB (Out-of-home Video Advertising Bureau): The official resource for information on out-of-home video advertising, marketing and metrics.

Organizational Alignment: Consistency of message content and tone across each delivery mechanism including executive and staff, ads, packaging, public and media relations, etc. each communication can result in  brand-building or if consistency is lacking the result can be “de-branding”.

Opportunity to See (OTS): The probability of being exposed to a medium’s content and/or the advertising it contains. OTS does not require actual exposure to all content or advertising.

PoP: Acronym for point of purchase. Retail marketing term for a display or any advertising that targets customers near the cash register or the counter where items are bought; also known as point of sale (PoS), but PoS often refers to the equipment used to facilitate the retail transaction.

Passive methods: Methods for collecting information that do not require a respondent’s active participation. 

Piggyback: Slang for two commercial announcements from the same sponsor that are presented back-to-back within a single commercial time segment. An example of this is two 15-second commercials in a 30-second time slot. This is also called double spotting.

Pixel: Short for “picture element,” the smallest unit of data on display screen; represents only one color at at time.

Player: Any device (hardware or software) that distributes video and audio content to a display.

Plasma burn: The permanent disfiguring of a plasma screen image caused by the continuous display of a high-contrast object.

Plasma screen: A thin, flat-screen display device that contains an inert mix of neon and xenon gases in cells beneath glass; when electrically charged, the gases turn into plasma that emits ultraviolet photons that, in turn, excite phosphors on the back of the cells, creating colored light.

Pod: A grouping of commercials and non-program material in which more than one advertiser's commercials air; also referred to as a commercial interruption or commercial break.

Portrait orientation: a screen rotated to the height of the display is greater than the width; portrait orientation can often be more eye-catching than horizontal or landscape orientation, which many more viewers identify with evermore prevalent widescreen TVs. 

Post Buy or Post Analysis: In-depth analysis executed after the flight has completed. 

Proof of play: A reporting mechanism in which logs are used to show that an ad actually played back on a digital signage system; some advertisers now also demand “proof of display,” verification that the ad was actually shown on the screens, as well as third-party audited play logs. 

Presence: The most basic qualification for vehicle audience exposure is to be in the Presence of that vehicle. For a vehicle with sound, it means being in a location where the vehicle is audible. In all cases, it requires being in a location where the vehicle is visible. 

Probability sampling: Any of several different sampling approaches in which each element in the population has a known, non-zero probability of being selected. 

Purchase Intent: The likelihood that an individual consumer will buy a particular product. 

QR code (Quick Response Code): is a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) first designed for the automotive industry. More recently, the system has become popular outside of the industry due to its fast readability and comparatively large storage capacity. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be made up of any kind of data.

Rate card: is a document provided by a company/publication featuring the organization's rate for advertising. It may also detail any deadlines, demographics, policies, additional fees and artwork requirements. The smaller the company/publication, the less information that may be available in the rate card.

Recency: Advertising that is effective because it is timely, relevant to an audience, as opposed to the frequency of impressions; the theory behind why PoP displays are thought to be highly effective; also based on an education psychology theory that says information acquired last is remembered best.

Remote virtual media: A method of connecting remote media storage devices such as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, etc. to a local system. Users at the local system can access these systems, and read and write from them as if they were local.

Resolution: refers to the clarity and detail of an image relating to the number of lines (horizontal and vertical) of pixels; measured in dots per inch (dpi), with the higher pixel density the better.

Router: A computer router is a hardware or software device that acts like a telephone exchange. It recognizes the addresses of packets of data and routes them over a permanently connected network towards their destination.

RSS: Acronym for Really Simple Syndication, Web feed technology that automatically detects when content on one site is updated and through subscriber feeds and aggregators, distributes it to another Web site or to a digital signage content player. 

RTP: Acronym for Real-time Transport Protocol, a transport protocol for formatting packets for transmitting video and audio over the Web.

RTSP: is an acronym for Real Time Streaming Protocol, a standardized protocol for the remote control of a streaming media server. 

Rating: The estimate of the size of the audience, expressed as a percent of the audience population. The percent sign is not shown and the rating may represent overall viewing or a specific segment of audience viewing within a defined geography or universe. 

Reach: The net number of people exposed to the digital place-based network during a given period of time, often one or four weeks. 

Recall: The ability to remember a particular advertisement or segment from within a digital place-based program. This can be measured with (aided) or without (unaided) prompting. 

Response Rate: The percentage of eligible sample units that provide usable, complete information in a survey. 

Rotation: A “rotation” is one ad position in a loop.

SaaS (Software as a service): is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software," is a software delivery model in which software and its associated data are hosted centrally (typically in the (Internet/cloud) and are typically accessed by users using a thin client, normally using a web browser over the Internet. SaaS has become a common delivery model for most business applications, including accounting, collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), invoicing, human resource management (HRM), content management (CM) and service desk management. SaaS has been incorporated into the strategy of all leading enterprise software companies.

SLA:  Service Level Agreement. This is sometimes referred to as Quality of Service and included in contracts as a pre-agreed requirement for a system to be on operational status.

SMS (Short Message Service): is a text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices. SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in the world, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone subscribers. The term SMS is used as a synonym for all types of short text messaging as well as the user activity itself in many parts of the world. SMS is also being used as a form of direct marketing known as SMS marketing.

S-Video: Short for separate video, a video connection interface that carries luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signaling separately to prevent color crosstalk and for improved image reproduction.

Sales Lift: Revenue increase. Usually expressed as a % increase over normal

Sample frame: A listing that should include all those in the population to be sampled and excludes all those who are not in the population.

Saturation: is the intensity, or the purity, of color present on a video screen.

Schedule: The advertising purchased from a vendor and defined by the variables of market, number of advertising units, flight, length of advertising and rotations.

Screen zoning: refers to dividing a digital signage into regions containing separate static or real-time content feeds, or a mix of both.

Seasonal Variation: The premium or discount placed on the relative value of a viewer demographic based on the time of the year. For example, since reaching viewers is more beneficial at the Christmas buying season, a premium say, 30% might be added to a weekly traffic count, while a post-Christmas viewer total would be discounted due to a lower inclination to purchase.

Self-Directed Engagement: Media delivered in an environment in which the potential audience makes a conscious decision to engage with the messaging. 

Sentiment: Cognitive perceptions or emotional feelings toward a particular brand or product. 

Site Visit:  A visit to the site by a qualified technician to ensure proper equipment installation.

Streaming media: Video or other media compressed and delivered to an audience on-demand or live without the need for a complete transfer of the original file.

Streaming Video:  refers to a one-way video transmission over a data network. It is widely used on the Web as well as private intranets to deliver video on demand or a video broadcast. Unlike movie files (MPG, AVI, etc.) that are played after they are downloaded, streaming video is played within a few seconds of requesting it, and the data is not stored permanently in the computer.

Sponsorship: The ability for an advertiser to have their logo associated with a particular piece of content as in sponsored by “Advertiser”. An animated sponsorship is same as above with an animated logo of advertiser. 

Study design: The specification of the sample frame, sample size and the system for selecting and obtaining information from/about individual respondents in the population.

Sunlight-readable displays: Panels with coatings and films that reduce the amount of reflective light, making them ideal for digital signage in brightly lit or even direct sunlight areas.

Switch: A switch is used to network multiple computers together. Switches are more advanced than hubs and less capable than routers. Unlike hubs, switches can limit the traffic to and from each port so that each device connected to the switch has a sufficient amount of bandwidth. However, switches don't provide the firewall and logging capabilities that routers do.

Synchronized ad: An advertisement that works as contextual advertising, running next to editorial or “infotainment” content with similar subject matter. 

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TRP (Target Rating Point): defined as the rating point delivery to the advertiser’s specific target audience.  Most big advertisers use GRPs as benchmarks, but use TRPs to measure actual delivery to their specific customer base. 

Target Audience:  refers to a defined group of people at which an advertiser’s message product or service is aimed.

Template: A document or file that contains pre-formatted design elements, enabling the customization of content and text to a specific digital signage application.

Third-party advertisers: Agencies used by digital signage operators to coordinate the delivery and sales transactions of advertising content and campaigns from merchants, companies, and media resellers.

Ticker: Horizontal text streamed across a screen often used to deliver headlines, promotions, and up-to-date stock information to an audience.

Traffic Count: The number of people who enter a venue.

Unit: Duration of the Network's typical Ad Unit.

VGA: Acronym for Video Graphics Array, an analog computer display standard with a resolution of 640 x 480 and a 256-color palette; most VGA devices use the HD15 connector; although analog, VGA video from a PC is used in many digital signage applications by using VGA extenders and splitters.

Vehicle: refers to a specific channel or publication for carrying the advertising message to a target audience. For example, one medium would be magazines, while one vehicle would be Time magazine.

Vehicle Audience: Vehicle Traffic with Notice; a Vehicle Audience metric suitable for comparison to static media.

Vehicle Exposure Frequency: Number of separate exposures of a vehicle audience member during the venue visit or other time period. 

Vehicle Reach: The net number of viewers, of specified characteristics, in the vehicle zone who noticed the vehicle, during a time period. 

Vehicle Traffic: The number of visits, over a period of time, with presence in the vehicle zone. 

Vehicle Zone: The physical area in which a person is able to see and/or hear a specific, place-based advertising vehicle. 

Vehicle Zone Dwell Time: the number of seconds the viewer is in the Vehicle Zone with Notice. 

Venue: The place and location of the advertising network and screens. Examples include supermarkets, office buildings, gas stations and other places where consumers can be found.

Venue Reach: The net number for visitors to the venue during a time period. 

Venue Traffic: The total number of visits, over a period of time, occurring in venues (i.e. locations) where a network is installed. This number can be reported by demographic segment. 

Venue Visit Frequency: Number of venue visits per visitor during a time period. 

Venue Visit Time: the time spent in the venue during the total visit time. 

Verification: The process of checking with respondents after they have been interviewed to be sure the person was actually interviewed and that the interview was done correctly and completely – where and when it was supposed to have been done. 

Video Advertising Networks & Screens: Video networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues. 

Video Advertising: Full-motion video, with or without audio, commercial, can play full screen or with an enhancing graphical banner.

Video wall: A wall mounted or frame-mounted checkerboard configuration of multiple video screens showing different images or the same image spread across multiple screens.

Virtual Private Network (VPN): A VPN is used in Digital Signage networks to provide secure, reliable connectivity as a private network but at much lower cost. Using a VPN the Digital signage network can operate outside of the internet or other organizational connectivity infrastructure to assure cost-effective, secure and reliable network operations at required levels.

Wait-warping: An effect of certain types of digital place-based advertising, whereby customers who are entertained while waiting for service experience reduced perceived wait times and increased satisfaction levels. 

Weighting: Statistical adjustments, conducted before data are analyzed, which adjust for respondents' unequal probabilities of selection in probability samples.

Wi-Fi: Wireless networks use radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios. The computer's wireless adapter translates data into radio signals and transmits it with an antenna, and a wireless router receives the signal and decodes it.

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YPbPr (also Y/Pb/Pr or Y, Pb, PR): A set of video color spaces used to encode RGB information for Progressive Scan capable Component video connections; the analog version of YCbCr connection, contains the luma or brightness (Y) information along with the difference between blue and luma (Pb) and the difference between red and luma (Pr).

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